DNA isolation is the process in which the DNA is purified from a sample through the use of chemical and physical methods available. The first DNA isolation was done in 1869 by Friedrich Meischer. At present it is a method that is commonly used in forensic analyses and molecular biology. There are three steps to a basic DNA extraction process which are the following: 1) lysis 2) precipitation, and 3) purification.
First off you have to understand what DNA is. You must have heard of the genetic code or the blueprint of life. Both terms refer to DNA. All living things including plants, animals, and even bacteria have DNA found within their cells. The DNA is a long molecule that is composed of a chain of nucleotides. All species have the same order of nucleotides but they differ individually. Genes are only sections within such long DNA molecule. To get more info, click ChIP-Seq. For you to be able to study DNA, it has to be extracted from the cell. Through the DNA extraction process, the DNA is freed from the cell and then it is separated from the cellular fluid as well as proteins so much so that you are left with simply pure DNA.
The following are the steps to DNA extraction:
Lysis: Here is where the cell and the nucleus are opened to release the DNA found inside. There are two ways for this to be done. The first step is through mechanical disruption which opens the cells. It can be done with the use of a tissue homogenizer or a mortar and pestle and by cutting the tissues into very small pieces. Lysis also makes use of detergents and enzymes to free all the DNA and to dissolve all cellular proteins too.
Precipitation: Here the DNA is already mixed with the mashed up cell parts. It is precipitation that separates DNA from cellular debris. First step is that sodium is added to neutralize the negative charges on the DNA molecules. To get more info, visit DNA purification kits. Next step is that alcohol is added which causes the DNA to precipitate from the aqueous solution since it's not soluble in alcohol.
Purification: The separated DNA can now be rinsed with alcohol to get rid of any remaining unwanted matter and cellular debris. This time the purified DNA is already dissolved in water for it to handled and stored easily.